Jumat, 19 Maret 2010

EMBRAER EMB 312 TUCANO

Embraer EMB 312 Tucano

Esquadrilha da Fumaça EMB 312

Role Trainer aircraft

Manufacturer Embraer

First flight 16 August 1980

Introduction September, 1983

Status Active

Primary users Brazilian Air Force

Egyptian Air Force

Argentine Air Force

French Air Force

Produced 1980

Number built 504

Variants Short Tucano

The Embraer EMB 312 Tucano is a two seat turboprop basic trainer developed in Brazil. The prototype first flew in 1980 and initial production units were delivered in 1983. The Tucano family of aircraft became one of Embraer's first international marketing successes, with 600 units produced. An improved variant was licence-produced as the Short Tucano for the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force.

Design and development

In 1978 the Brazilian state owned aircraft manufacturer Embraer started the design for a new basic trainer for the Brazilian Air Force, receiving a contract for two prototypes in December that year. The first prototype flew on 16 August 1980, with the second flying for the first time on 10 December 1980.[1]

The EMB-312 is designated T-27 in Brazilian Air Force (FAB) service. It is the aerobatic demonstration aircraft of the Brazilian Air Force Demonstration Squadron, the "Smoke Squadron" (Esquadrilha da Fumaça). The FAB purchased 133 AT-27 light attack versions. First exported to Honduras in 1984, the EMB-312 proved successful.

The upgraded EMB-312H "Super Tucano" was a losing contender in the USA's Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) aircraft selection of the 1990s. Among the seven designs to enter, the Raytheon/Pilatus entry won, which became the T-6 Texan II. Embraer worked with Northrop, which merged with Grumman part way through the competition to become Northrop Grumman. The EMB-312H's design later served as a starting point for the EMB-314, dubbed the ALX, and adopted by the Brazilian Air Force as the A-29.

Operational history

Venezuela

On 27 November 1992, the aircraft were widely used by mutinied officers who staged a coup d'état against former President Carlos Andrés Pérez. The rebels dropped bombs and launched rockets against Police and government buildings in Caracas. Several aircraft, along with OV-10 Broncos were shot down during the uprising by F-16s flown by loyalist pilots

Peru

The Peruvian Air Force used the AT-27 for night bombing missions during the Cenepa War in 1995.

Drug busting operations

The aircraft, along with the Cessna A-37 Dragonfly, has been widely used for drug-busting operations in Central and South America.

Variants

EMB-312

The standard production model.

T-27

Two-seat basic training aircraft for the Brazilian Air Force.

AT-27

Two-seat light attack version for the Brazilian Air Force.

EMB-312F

80 units sold to France of model with French avionics.

Short Tucano

130 aircraft to RAF, plus 12 for Kenya and 16 for Kuwait with a different, more powerful engine and custom avionics.

EMB-312H

a Northrop/Embraer developed prototype for USAF (JPATS) competition for an advanced trainer, from which derived EMB-314 EMB-314 Super Tucano (ALX) now in production for FAB.

Operators

 Angola

Angolan Air Force operates 14 aircraft including six aircraft bought from Peru.

 Argentina

Argentine Air Force received 30 aircraft.

 Brazil

Brazilian Air Force bought 151 aircraft, 109 of them are in service.

Smoke Squadron

 Colombia

Colombian Air Force received 14 aircraft.

 Dominican Republic

Dominican Air Force received 8 aircraft.

 Egypt

Egyptian Air Force bought 54 aircraft with 40 produced under license by Helwan.

 France

French Air Force received 50 aircraft.

 Guatemala

Guatemalan Air Force received 14 aircraft.

 Honduras

Honduran Air Force received 12 aircraft.

 Iran

IRGC Air Force received 15 aircraft.

 Iraq

Iraqi Air Force bought 80 aircraft produced under licence by Helwan.

 Paraguay

Paraguayan Air Force received six aircraft.

 Peru

Peruvian Air Force bought 30 aircraft. Six of them were resold to Angola.

 Venezuela

Venezuelan Air Force received 31 aircraft.

Specifications (standard EMB 312)

Data from Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide, Fifth Edition[6]

General characteristics

o         Crew: 2

o         Length: 9.86 m (32 ft 4 in)

o         Wingspan: 11.14 m (36 ft 6 in)

o         Height: 3.4 m (11 ft 2 in)

o         Wing area: 19.4 m² (209 sq ft)

o         Empty weight: 1,810 kg (3,990 lb)

o         Loaded weight: lb (kg)

o         Useful load: lb (kg)

o         Max takeoff weight: 3,175 kg (7,000 lb)

o         Powerplant: 1× Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop, 560 kW (750 hp)

Performance

o         Maximum speed: 458 km/h (247 kt)

o         Cruise speed: 347 km/h (187 kt)

o         Stall speed: 67 kt (km/h)

o         Range: 1916 km (1035 NM)

o         Service ceiling: 9,150 m (30,000 ft)

o         Rate of climb: 2600 ft/min (793 m/s)

o         Wing loading: 164 kg/m² (33.5 lb/ft²)

o         Power/mass: 0.11 hp/lb (0.18 kW/kg)

Armament

o         Guns:12.7 mm(pod mounted on wing pylons)

o         Bombs: May be mouted on wing pylons.

o         Rockets: Unguided rocket pods may be mounted on wing pylons.

o         Other:4 underwing pylons total capacity 1,000 kg (2,200 lb)

Bibliography

Endres, Gunther, ed. Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide, Fifth Edition. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. ISBN 978-0-00-725792-8.

Gunston, Bill. The Encyclopedia of Modern Warplanes: The Development and Specifications of All Active Military Aircraft. New York: MetroBooks, 1995. ISBN 1-58663-207-8.

Gunston, Bill. Encyclopedia Of World Air Power. London: Crescent, 1987. ISBN 0-51749-969-X.

Taylor, John W.R. (editor). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.

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