Esquadrilha da Fumaça EMB 312
Role Trainer aircraft
First flight 16 August 1980
Introduction September, 1983
Primary users Brazilian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force
Argentine Air Force
French Air Force
Number built 504
Variants Short Tucano
The Embraer EMB 312 Tucano is a two seat turboprop basic trainer developed in Brazil. The prototype first flew in 1980 and initial production units were delivered in 1983. The Tucano family of aircraft became one of Embraer's first international marketing successes, with 600 units produced. An improved variant was licence-produced as the Short Tucano for the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force.
Design and development
In 1978 the Brazilian state owned aircraft manufacturer Embraer started the design for a new basic trainer for the Brazilian Air Force, receiving a contract for two prototypes in December that year. The first prototype flew on 16 August 1980, with the second flying for the first time on 10 December 1980.
The EMB-312 is designated T-27 in Brazilian Air Force (FAB) service. It is the aerobatic demonstration aircraft of the Brazilian Air Force Demonstration Squadron, the "Smoke Squadron" (Esquadrilha da Fumaça). The FAB purchased 133 AT-27 light attack versions. First exported to Honduras in 1984, the EMB-312 proved successful.
The upgraded EMB-312H "Super Tucano" was a losing contender in the USA's Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) aircraft selection of the 1990s. Among the seven designs to enter, the Raytheon/Pilatus entry won, which became the T-6 Texan II. Embraer worked with Northrop, which merged with Grumman part way through the competition to become Northrop Grumman. The EMB-312H's design later served as a starting point for the EMB-314, dubbed the ALX, and adopted by the Brazilian Air Force as the A-29.
On 27 November 1992, the aircraft were widely used by mutinied officers who staged a coup d'état against former President Carlos Andrés Pérez. The rebels dropped bombs and launched rockets against Police and government buildings in Caracas. Several aircraft, along with OV-10 Broncos were shot down during the uprising by F-16s flown by loyalist pilots
The Peruvian Air Force used the AT-27 for night bombing missions during the Cenepa War in 1995.
Drug busting operations
The aircraft, along with the Cessna A-37 Dragonfly, has been widely used for drug-busting operations in Central and South America.
The standard production model.
Two-seat basic training aircraft for the Brazilian Air Force.
Two-seat light attack version for the Brazilian Air Force.
80 units sold to France of model with French avionics.
130 aircraft to RAF, plus 12 for Kenya and 16 for Kuwait with a different, more powerful engine and custom avionics.
a Northrop/Embraer developed prototype for USAF (JPATS) competition for an advanced trainer, from which derived EMB-314 EMB-314 Super Tucano (ALX) now in production for FAB.
Angolan Air Force operates 14 aircraft including six aircraft bought from Peru.
Argentine Air Force received 30 aircraft.
Brazilian Air Force bought 151 aircraft, 109 of them are in service.
Colombian Air Force received 14 aircraft.
Dominican Air Force received 8 aircraft.
Egyptian Air Force bought 54 aircraft with 40 produced under license by Helwan.
French Air Force received 50 aircraft.
Guatemalan Air Force received 14 aircraft.
Honduran Air Force received 12 aircraft.
IRGC Air Force received 15 aircraft.
Iraqi Air Force bought 80 aircraft produced under licence by Helwan.
Paraguayan Air Force received six aircraft.
Peruvian Air Force bought 30 aircraft. Six of them were resold to Angola.
Venezuelan Air Force received 31 aircraft.
Specifications (standard EMB 312)
Data from Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide, Fifth Edition
o Crew: 2
o Length: 9.86 m (32 ft 4 in)
o Wingspan: 11.14 m (36 ft 6 in)
o Height: 3.4 m (11 ft 2 in)
o Wing area: 19.4 m² (209 sq ft)
o Empty weight: 1,810 kg (3,990 lb)
o Loaded weight: lb (kg)
o Useful load: lb (kg)
o Max takeoff weight: 3,175 kg (7,000 lb)
o Powerplant: 1× Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop, 560 kW (750 hp)
o Maximum speed: 458 km/h (247 kt)
o Cruise speed: 347 km/h (187 kt)
o Stall speed: 67 kt (km/h)
o Range: 1916 km (1035 NM)
o Service ceiling: 9,150 m (30,000 ft)
o Rate of climb: 2600 ft/min (793 m/s)
o Wing loading: 164 kg/m² (33.5 lb/ft²)
o Power/mass: 0.11 hp/lb (0.18 kW/kg)
o Guns:12.7 mm(pod mounted on wing pylons)
o Bombs: May be mouted on wing pylons.
o Rockets: Unguided rocket pods may be mounted on wing pylons.
o Other:4 underwing pylons total capacity 1,000 kg (2,200 lb)
Endres, Gunther, ed. Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide, Fifth Edition. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. ISBN 978-0-00-725792-8.
Gunston, Bill. The Encyclopedia of Modern Warplanes: The Development and Specifications of All Active Military Aircraft. New York: MetroBooks, 1995. ISBN 1-58663-207-8.
Gunston, Bill. Encyclopedia Of World Air Power. London: Crescent, 1987. ISBN 0-51749-969-X.
Taylor, John W.R. (editor). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.