Jumat, 17 Juni 2011


C4ISR (Command, Control, Communication, Computer, Information, Surveillance and Reconnaissance)

The primary operational and functional purpose of the Tampa Bay Maritime Domain Awareness System (MDAS) program is to develop a tactical Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) system supported by integrated sensor and information processes that produce actionable intelligence to fulfill User Defined Operational Picture (UDOP) requirements. The C4ISR system, supporting sensors, information processes, integration, and fusion protocols will be researched, developed, tested, and evaluated in the Tampa Bay MDAS Test Bed.

The National Strategy for Maritime Security states that "the safety and economic security of the United States depends upon the secure use of the world’s ocean" and that "a key national security requirement is the effective understanding of all activities, events, and trends within any relevant domain–air, land, sea, space, and cyberspace–that could threaten the safety, security, economy, or environment of the United States and its people." In accordance with this national strategy, the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) have accepted Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) as an effective means for understanding the global maritime elements that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of the United States.

The National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness states that "the primary method for information sharing, situational awareness, and collaborative planning will be the national maritime common operating picture (COP). The COP is a near real-time, dynamically tailorable, network–centric virtual information grid shared by all U.S. Federal, state and local agencies with maritime interests and responsibilities. COP data will be accessible to all users, except when limited by security, policy, or regulations."

The spiraling level of information, however, often exacerbates the challenge of effective dissemination in an easily understood and accessible format, and in particular, the effective determination of the COP. Effective, pre–determined dissemination is essential for the operations and security of the Global Maritime Community of Interest (GMCOI). The added ability to provide role–based non–classified information to the GMCOI provides continuing observations and orientations in the dynamic maritime domain. An indiscriminate COP, however, is not the optimum solution for situational awareness within specific operational or role–based environments. To move along the SOA continuum from data to knowledge, cohesion and data fusion must be introduced. This entails embracing SOA and a User–Defined Operating Picture (UDOP) to provide a system that allows the user to inject knowledge to enhance decision.

The core SOA capabilities the MDAS must provide are: collaboration; distributed services security; Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI); data fusion as identified by the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Levels 1-3; data mediation; service mediation; and persistent, automated system management. The core MDAS noted must provide the GMCOI with the ability to cooperate in a virtual work space to understand, represent, and devise a solution to a common problem. Even when globally distributed, as the GMCOI is, it must be possible to interact and cooperate, both vertically and horizontally, as if collocated. This is the goal of net-centric operations that MDAS must support. In this context, collaboration is a GMCOI information exchange to produce operational consensus. The basic tenets involve discovery, connection, and content modification until the desired product is achieved through and from disparate affected entities.

MDAS will employ a variety of software applications to provide a common operational picture of security and force protection operations throughout Tampa Bay and is initially is intended to provide stakeholders the oversight capability of operations underway in real time. Provided this picture, stakeholders can make better decisions about priorities and the assignment of security or counter-threat assets. The MDAS will employ a configuration with "push," "pull," and "current ops" views of all activities. The MDAS will consist of a series of tools that provide a graphic and imagery-based common tactical picture with supporting data, collaboration capabilities, log and alerting functions, and a means to access and display updated information from web-based status boards and databases. Users will access MDAS through an Internet address that triggers the UDOP presentation. The UDOP will serve as the interactive event log and also as the pathway to the other associated software applications, user tutorials, and user event checklists. The MDAS should be fundamentally designed to collect and disseminate information from all echelons within the purview of Tampa Bay stakeholders. The MDAS will provide functional capabilities for action at the stakeholder level. The capabilities will be in the form of information consumer, information collector, analyzer, and information disseminator. Many of these functions will overlap and the degree will be determined by the user role.

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